Adult life expectancy in 2009 was 63 years for men and 67 years for women.. The Museum of the Sea, founded by Professor Rabesandratana, is hosted by the Oceanographic Institute and covers the local aquatic flora and fauna, including a coelacanth caught in 1995 near Anakao. Throughout almost the entire island, the contemporary cuisine of Madagascar typically consists of a base of rice (vary) served with an accompaniment (laoka). A locally known shell market, on the waterfront, behind the French Alliance, sells shells and various handicraft products. Sculptors create a variety of furniture and household goods, aloalo funerary posts, and wooden sculptures, many of which are produced for the tourist market. Radama concluded a treaty in 1817 with the British governor of Mauritius to abolish the lucrative slave trade in return for British military and financial assistance. Army organization was improved and British consultants were employed to train and professionalize soldiers. The monarchy ended in 1897 when the island was absorbed into the French colonial empire, from which the island gained independence in 1960. , The western and southern sides, which lie in the rain shadow of the central highlands, are home to dry deciduous forests, spiny forests, and deserts and xeric shrublands. Nonetheless, many sources still claimed that Malagasy and French were official languages, eventually leading a citizen to initiate a legal case against the state in April 2000, on the grounds that the publication of official documents only in the French language was unconstitutional.  By the early 19th century, the Merina sovereigns of the Kingdom of Madagascar had brought much of the island under their control by mobilizing an army of trained and armed soldiers numbering as high as 30,000. The city rapidly expanded after World War II.  Scouting is represented in Madagascar by its own local federation of three scouting clubs.  The few families and genera of reptile that have reached Madagascar have diversified into more than 260 species, with over 90 percent of these being endemic (including one endemic family).  Eleven countries have established embassies in Madagascar, including France, the United Kingdom, the United States, China and India, while Madagascar has embassies in sixteen other countries. In 1896 the French colonizers of Madagascar adopted the Merina capital as their center of colonial administration. Places to see, ways to wander, and signature experiences.  The regions are further subdivided into 119 districts, 1,579 communes, and 17,485 fokontany.. , The contested 2001 presidential elections in which then-mayor of Antananarivo, Marc Ravalomanana, eventually emerged victorious, caused a seven-month standoff in 2002 between supporters of Ravalomanana and Ratsiraka. The current spelling of the name was adopted in the 1970s, reflecting the orthography of the Malagasy language. His ambition to bring the entire island under his control was largely achieved by his son and successor, King Radama I (1810–28), who was recognized by the British government as King of Madagascar. Largely paved national routes connect the six largest regional towns to Antananarivo, with minor paved and unpaved routes providing access to other population centers in each district. A large section of the city’s residents prefers to travel on foot for their daily activities and work. The negative economic impact of the political crisis was gradually overcome by Ravalomanana's progressive economic and political policies, which encouraged investments in education and ecotourism, facilitated foreign direct investment, and cultivated trading partnerships both regionally and internationally.  The first formal European-style school was established in 1818 at Toamasina by members of the London Missionary Society (LMS).  The island's newest port at Ehoala, constructed in 2008 and privately managed by Rio Tinto, will come under state control upon completion of the company's mining project near Tôlanaro around 2038. Antananarivo houses nearly 10% of the country’s population. Madagascar is a country that occupies a large island of the same name, located in the Indian Ocean off the eastern coast of Africa.It is the fourth largest island in the world.  The armed forces are under the direction of the Minister of the Interior and have remained largely neutral during times of political crisis, as during the protracted standoff between incumbent Ratsiraka and challenger Marc Ravalomanana in the disputed 2001 presidential elections, when the military refused to intervene in favor of either candidate. Quelques reflections intéressant la programmation de l'assistance de l'UNICEF", "Managing for results in primary education in Madagascar: Evaluating the impact of selected workflow interventions", "The dual origin of the Malagasy in Island Southeast Asia and East Africa: evidence from maternal and paternal lineages", "On the origins and admixture of Malagasy: new evidence from high-resolution analyses of paternal and maternal lineages", "Haute Cour Constitutionnelle De Madagascar, Décision n°03-HCC/D2 Du 12 avril 2000", "Madagascar: 2007 Constitutional referendum", "Dead Join the Living in a Family Celebration", "International Religious Freedom Report: Madagascar", "Report of the High Level Committee on the Indian Diaspora", "Evidence for the Indonesian origins of certain elements of African culture", "Origine Confuse des Vazimba du Betsiriry", "Woodcrafting Knowledge of the Zafimaniry", "Triennal review: Census as of 1 December 2010", "Spitting into the wind: Multi-edged environmentalism in Malagasy song", "Clean people, unclean people: the essentialisation of 'slaves' among the southern Betsileo of Madagascar", Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Southern African Development Coordination Conference, Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights, African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Madagascar&oldid=984041128, French-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, States and territories established in 1960, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles containing Malagasy-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2009, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 17 October 2020, at 20:14. Lemurs have been characterized as "Madagascar's flagship mammal species" by Conservation International. , Primarily on the basis that the Lambert Charter had not been respected, France invaded Madagascar in 1883 in what became known as the first Franco-Hova War.  Arab traders first reached the island between the 7th and 9th centuries.  Madagascar has also developed a rich musical heritage, embodied in dozens of regional musical genres such as the coastal salegy or highland hiragasy that enliven village gatherings, local dance floors and national airwaves. Under the socialist Second Republic, Admiral Didier Ratsiraka instated mandatory national armed or civil service for all young citizens regardless of gender, a policy that remained in effect from 1976 to 1991.  Numerous giant lemur species vanished with the arrival of human settlers to the island, while others became extinct over the course of the centuries as a growing human population put greater pressures on lemur habitats and, among some populations, increased the rate of lemur hunting for food.  An epic poem exemplifying these traditions, the Ibonia, has been handed down over the centuries in several different forms across the island, and offers insight into the diverse mythologies and beliefs of traditional Malagasy communities.  Three Horses Beer is the most popular beer on the island and is considered emblematic of Madagascar. As of 2012[update], there were officially 103 species and subspecies of lemur, 39 of which were described by zoologists between 2000 and 2008. The famadihana is an occasion to celebrate the beloved ancestor's memory, reunite with family and community, and enjoy a festive atmosphere. Toliara is located on a broad coastal plain, surrounded by dunes and mangroves, near the Tropic of Capricorn in the Mozambique Channel. Only small ships anchor at the terminal because of limited water at the wharf, resulting in bigger ships anchoring off the terminal. It is traditionally practiced by men, but women have recently begun to participate. Madagascar had outbreaks of the bubonic plague and pneumonic plague in 2017 (2575 cases, 221 deaths) and 2014 (263 confirmed cases, 71 deaths). If you are a resident of another country or region, please select the appropriate version of Tripadvisor for your country or region in the drop-down menu. The vast majority of Muslims are Sunni. Succeeding his mother, Radama II (1861–63) attempted to relax the queen's stringent policies, but was overthrown two years later by Prime Minister Rainivoninahitriniony (1852–1865) and an alliance of Andriana (noble) and Hova (commoner) courtiers, who sought to end the absolute power of the monarch.  Reflecting a widespread veneration of the ancestors, tombs are culturally significant in many regions and tend to be built of more durable material, typically stone, and display more elaborate decoration than the houses of the living. The city is located about 1,280 m above sea level. The first settlers encountered Madagascar's abundance of megafauna, including giant lemurs, elephant birds, giant fossa and the Malagasy hippopotamus, which have since become extinct because of hunting and habitat destruction. The island's recurrent political crises are often prolonged, with detrimental effects on the local economy, international relations and Malagasy living standards. , Exports formed 28 percent of GDP in 2009. Madagascar City is a multiplayer map in Uncharted 4: A Thief's End. The Bay of Toliara houses one of Madagascar's oil exploration sites.  The island is home to two-thirds of the world's chameleon species, including the smallest known, and researchers have proposed that Madagascar may be the origin of all chameleons. , Each of the many ethnic subgroups in Madagascar adhere to their own set of beliefs, practices and ways of life that have historically contributed to their unique identities.
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