The miles of Roman roads were no longer maintained and the grand movement of goods that was coordinated and managed by the Romans fell apart. His surname 'Augustus' was given the diminutive form 'Augustulus' by rivals because he was still a minor, and he was never recognized outside of Italy as a legitimate ruler.. It never again controlled any portion of Western Europe to the North of the Alps. When the law and order that Rome provided disappeared, the people of Europe began to look to the church for guidance. On arrival, Gainas murdered Rufinus, and was appointed magister militum for Thrace by Eutropius, the new supreme minister and the only eunuch consul of Rome, who controlled Arcadius "as if he were a sheep". AD 395–700. His troops killed Gratian and he was accepted as Augustus in the Gallic provinces, where he was responsible for the first official executions of Christian heretics. O’Gorman, Robert, and Mary Faulkner. Gaddis, Michael. To St. Augustine there existed two cities: one of this world and one of God.  While the scale, complexity, and violence of government were unmatched, the emperors lost control over their whole realm insofar as that control came increasingly to be wielded by anyone who paid for it. He gave great weight to internal decline as well as to attacks from outside the Empire. , Alaric's military operations centred on the port of Rome, through which Rome's grain supply had to pass.  No battle took place.  Stilicho continued negotiations with Alaric; Flavius Aetius, son of one of Stilicho's major supporters, was sent as a hostage to Alaric in 405. The last, Constantine III, raised an army from the remaining troops in Britannia, invaded Gaul and defeated forces loyal to Honorius led by Sarus.  Those exceptions were responsible for brief, but remarkable resurgences of Roman power. , Attila may not have needed any excuse to turn West, but he received one in the form of a plea for help from Honoria, the Emperor's sister, who was being forced into a marriage which she resented. Although landowners swore loyalty to the king, those landowners would further subdivide and distribute their lands to people who swore loyalty to them. Edward Gibbon reiterated this sentiment (he diminished the importance of the barbaric threat) when he claimed the rise of Christianity as a factor in the “tale of woe” for the empire. The next year, Attila invaded Italy and proceeded to march upon Rome, but an outbreak of disease in his army, lack of supplies, reports that Eastern Roman troops were attacking his noncombatant population in Pannonia, and, possibly, Pope Leo's plea for peace induced him to halt this campaign. In contrast, during the Cimbrian War, the Roman Republic, controlling a smaller area than the western Empire, had been able to reconstitute large regular armies of citizens after greater defeats than Adrianople, and it ended that war with the near-extermination of the invading barbarian supergroups, each recorded as having more than 100,000 warriors (with allowances for the usual exaggeration of numbers by ancient authors). Heather, Peter. Rome had tangled with Germanic tribes for centuries, but by the 300s “barbarian” groups like the Goths had encroached beyond the Empire’s borders. “The Fall of Rome.” BBC. Marcellinus, magister militum in Dalmatia and the pagan general of a well-equipped army, acknowledged him as emperor and recovered Sicily from the Vandals. This request was made in urgency, for the “savage” Huns threatened their homeland. The Eastern Roman, or Byzantine Empire survived, and though lessened in strength remained for centuries an effective power of the Eastern Mediterranean. Sarus was an enemy of Ataulf, and on Ataulf's arrival went back into imperial service. Apart from the losses in the Diocese of Africa, Hispania was slipping out of central control and into the hands of local rulers and Suevic bandits. The commander in chief with the main force defeated a Vandal fleet near Sicily and landed at Cape Bon. Rome was forced to hire barbarian mercenaries to defend the borders (Heather, “The Fall of Rome”). Galinsky, Karl.  The conspirators seem to have let their main army disintegrate, and had no policy except hunting down supporters of Stilicho.  Meanwhile, the Empire deteriorated seriously. , Gratian appointed a new Augustus, a proven general from Hispania called Theodosius. Serfs who worked the land were bound to the land, and forbidden to create economic infrastructure without their lord’s permission. Sack of Rome by the Visigothsby JN Sylvestre (Public Domain).  The wealth of the church increased dramatically, immense resources both public and private being used for ecclesiastical construction and support of the religious life. Gibbon was right: The decline and fall of the Roman economy. xxxvii ff, De Re Militari. , In 444, the Huns were united under Attila. Although Gibbon points to the rise of Christianity as a fundamental cause, the actual fall or decline could be seen decades earlier. Rome had fallen but it had been for so so long one of the history's truly world cities. The Romans were without adequate forces; the barbarians inflicted haphazard extortion, murder, kidnap, and plunder on the Romans and on each other. If the decline of the Roman empire was hastened by the conversion of Constantine, his victorious religion broke the violence of the fall, and mollified the ferocious temper of the conquerors (chapter 38).  Radagaisus was defeated and executed. In this way many groups provided unfree workers (coloni) for Roman landowners, and recruits (laeti) for the Roman army.  The imperial government was quick to restore the Rhine frontier. Orestes was soon forced to flee Pavia when Odoacer's army broke through the city walls and ravaged the city. An unknown author who lived around 386 A.D. wrote, “…wherewith the arts of [greediness] afflict the provinces, comes the appalling greed of the provincial Governors, which is ruinous to the taxpayers’ interests” (“On Military Matters”). , Stilicho had news of the coup at Bononia (where he was probably waiting for Alaric).  Gerontius's troops deserted him and he committed suicide. He may have made some attempt to intervene in Gaul; if so, it was unsuccessful.
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